Dr. Iannacone is available to treat foot and ankle ailments such as diabetic foot care, ingrown toenails, fungal toenails, bunions, hammertoes, heel and arch pain, warts and painful calluses. Our practice specializes in general foot care.

Diabetic Foot Care

Diabetes can affect every part of your body, including your feet. Patients with diabetes are more likely to have a decrease in sensation and circulation leading to wounds that may experience impaired wound healing in the feet and ankles. So patients with diabetes must be very careful to monitor and maintain their feet with daily self-inspections.

Along with daily inspections, it is important to maintain good foot hygiene by washing the feet daily and drying them thoroughly—especially between the toes. Applying moisturizers can be helpful when the feet are dry but is not always necessary. Walking barefoot around the house or outdoors is to be avoided, as this can increase the likelihood of foot injuries. Socks, like wearing underwear, with properly fitting shoes is generally a good practice.

Daily foot inspections are vital and can be done with a living partner or a mirror. Find a routine time to sit and check both feet for any cuts, bruises, blisters, cracks, corns, calluses, swelling, local skin warmth or discoloration. If you notice anything different than the day before, it is vital that you see a podiatrist as soon as possible. Treating a minor foot problem promptly usually leads to a successful outcome. Don’t wait for it to get better on its own.


Wounds on the feet are most commonly seen with patients who have diabetes. Diabetic patients tend to have peripheral neuropathy, or nerve damage to the feet and lower legs which leads to a loss of sensation in the lower limbs. Many diabetic patients also develop poor blood circulation to the feet as well. With the loss of sensation, any small cut or open wound may go unnoticed. If the patient doesn’t feel it, they may not realize it is there. The poor circulation along with an undetected and untreated wound can easily lead to a diabetic foot infection. These can usually be treated successfully if detected and treated immediately. Unfortunately, left undetected, infected diabetic foot ulcers can also lead to serious medical complications including amputation in the worst-case scenarios. But treated early, complications from diabetic foot ulcerations can usually be avoided.

Fortunately, many diabetic foot ulcerations can be avoided by inspecting the feet daily, wearing appropriate socks and shoes and having their feet examined by a podiatrist at least once a year. A podiatrist may advise patients as to whether they are safe to trim their own toenails or if they should be done professionally by a podiatrist.

Finally, it is vital for diabetic patients to inspect their feet daily for any potential foot problem such as cuts, scrapes, sores, discoloration, swelling, pain, or any strange sensations like numbness, burning, or tingling. Any diabetic patient should call their podiatrist immediately to address any new concern before it becomes a major problem.

Plantar Fasciitis (Heel and/or Arch Pain)

Plantar fasciitis is a common condition that leads to heel or arch pain. This is usually caused by an increase in activity or strain that leads to inflammation of the plantar fascia ligament—the structure that runs from the bottom of the heel all the way to the toes. Unsurprisingly, plantar fasciitis is commonly seen with runners and other impact athletes. Unsupportive shoes, increased standing, obesity, flat feet, and even high arched feet can contribute to developing plantar fasciitis as well.

The textbook symptom of plantar fasciitis is sharp, stabbing pain in the heel immediately after rest or a dull to severe arch pain during increased or vigorous activity. Left untreated, the pain may gradually increase over a period of several months and become chronic.

Treatment for plantar fasciitis is usually conservative and begins with rest, ice, massaging the affected foot, stretching, taking anti-inflammatory medications, and wearing supportive shoes. Persistent or severe pain can be treated with a night splint, corticosteroid injections, inserts, custom orthotics, physical therapy, and other conservative treatment. While unusual, if the pain is resistant to conservative treatment, surgery is a viable option.

Neuroma (Morton’s Neuroma)

Neuroma, or Morton’s neuroma, is a foot condition in which the nerve, just behind the toes becomes pinched. This leads to pain, tingling, burning, numbness to this area and often to the toes involved. The symptoms may temporarily resolve, then return and progressively worsen over time.

Some causes of neuromas include wearing tight shoes, wearing high heels which put excess pressure on the balls of the feet and toes, running, or playing court sports like tennis or pickleball.

Conservative, or nonsurgical treatment is typically successful and includes padding the foot, orthotics, wearing wider shoes, resting, and icing the affected foot, and/or corticosteroid injections. Neuromas resistant to treatment may require surgery.


Gout usually presents itself as an extreme pain of the bunion joint (right behind the big toe) with increased redness, swelling and increased local skin temperature. The textbook description is that it is so painful that the patient can’t even place the bed sheet on the foot.

It is important for patients to be seen by a podiatrist so this condition can be differentiated from a possible foot infection. These are two very different problems that can present with similar symptoms. Once diagnosed properly with X-rays and blood tests, the condition can usually be treated quickly reducing the pain.


A bunion is a common foot deformity that presents as a bony bump at the base of the big toe joint. As the deformity worsens, the bump becomes larger, and the big toe begins to point toward the other toes. Besides the appearance of the bunion deformity, the condition can become painful and inflamed, especially during walking and with wearing shoes.

Bunions can be examined and diagnosed by a podiatrist through physically examining the foot and taking X-rays. Conservative treatments include wearing wider or open toe shoes, padding the bunion, rest, and ice. If these accommodative treatments are not successful, surgery may be recommended to correct more severe bunions.


Hammertoes are a common foot deformity in which the toes become contracted at the toe’s middle joint, resulting in the appearance of a claw or hammer. Hammertoes can become painful, usually from becoming stiff or immobile at these joints. The prominent stiff joint is usually painful from rubbing against the inside of the shoe. The tip of the toe can also be painful from rubbing against the floor or the inside of shoes. Corns and calluses can also result from prominent hammertoe deformities.

Without treatment, hammertoes can become progressively worse over time. Treatment for hammertoes starts with conservative care that includes wearing larger or open toe shoes, padding the toes, taking medications to reduce pain, and periodically trimming corns and calluses that have developed on the toes. More severe hammertoe deformities may require surgery to straighten them.

Ingrown Toenails

Ingrown toenails occur when the edge of a nail grows into the surrounding skin, rather than over it. This can cause pain, redness, swelling and in more severe cases, can cause an infection, leading to a wound with bleeding and pus.

Most ingrown toenails are caused by improperly trimming of the nails curved rather than straight across. When trimming the toenails, it is suggested that a straight-edged nail clipper be used rather than the curved fingernail clipper. The nails’ length should be roughly even or just a little shorter than the tips of your toes. Wearing shoes that are too short and narrow to the toes can put pressure on the nail edges, leading to ingrown nails. To avoid this, wear shoes long enough and with a wide-toe box.

Ingrown toenails are typically not serious and can be managed with home treatment. However, they can be dangerous for individuals who have underlying conditions such as diabetes, which can make foot wounds and infections more likely. Some people prone to ingrown toenails may require medical care for the condition. Painful, recurrent ingrown toenails or an infected nail should be treated soon by a podiatrist.

Corns and Calluses

Corns and calluses are thickened hard bumps of dead skin that can appear on your feet. Calluses are usually wider over a larger area and corns tend to be more pinpoint and more painful. Calluses and corns are usually caused by increased friction and pressure on either a large area of the foot, resulting in a callus or a pinpoint area, resulting in a corn.

Calluses tend to form on the soles of the foot. Corns develop between or on top of the toes, on the sides of the feet, or on the soles of the feet. Calluses and corns may or may not cause pain or discomfort. Often, home treatments like soaking the feet and applying moisturizer can soften the hard dead skin. However, patients should see a podiatrist if home treatments are ineffective, if the callus or corn needs to be trimmed, or if patients have other medical conditions like diabetes which can impair healing and increase the risk of infection.

Fungus Toenails

Onychomycosis, or a fungal infection of the toenails, is a very common condition. The fungi that cause this infection live and thrive in dark, moist and warm conditions. Feet inside socks, shoes, sneakers or nylons are the perfect environment for the fungus to grow. Toenail fungus can be contagious and can be contracted from walking barefoot in places like public pools and communal showers, sharing personal items like towels and shoes, and coming into direct contact with an infected person.

The fungus can cause the toenails to become thick, brittle, crumbly, and discolored yellow, white, or brown. They may begin to lift off the nail bed and emit a foul odor. The infection is usually not painful unless it has progressed to a severe condition. People who have diabetes, poor circulation, a weak immune system, excessively sweaty feet, toenail injuries, or Athlete’s foot are at an increased risk of contracting toenail fungus and experiencing complications.

Toenail fungus can be treated through topical solutions, which are applied directly to the nail or oral antifungal medications. In severe cases where the infection has progressed or is recurring, surgery to remove some or all of the infected nail may be necessary.

Athlete’s Foot

Athlete’s foot is a contagious fungal infection of the skin of the feet that can affect nonathletes too. It usually presents as a red, scaly and itchy rash between the toes and the bottom of the feet. The condition may also feel like the skin is burning. It is commonly spread by contact between the skin of the feet and fungus, which can get in through tiny cracks in the skin. The fungus may be spread from walking on an infected surface or sharing personal items like shoes, socks, or towels with an infected individual. The fungus grows well in a dark, moist and warm environment. Feet are the perfect environment for this condition.

Athlete’s foot can usually be treated by applying a topical over-the-counter antifungal medication directly to the feet. More severe cases may require prescription-strength medication to remedy the condition. If you suspect that you may have athlete’s foot, it is suggested that you see a podiatrist for treatment.

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